Gene Information
Gene Symbol
Entrez Gene ID
Gene Name
Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide
Chromosomal Location
The four human glycoprotein hormones chorionic gonadotropin (CG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are dimers consisting of alpha and beta subunits that are associated noncovalently. The alpha subunits of these hormones are identical, however, their beta chains are unique and confer biological specificity. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit and belongs to the glycoprotein hormones alpha chain family. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011)
GeneCards ID
RefSeq mRNA

Gene Ontology (GO)

GO ID Ontology Definition Evidence Reference
GO:0007165 Biological process Signal transduction TAS 481597
GO:0007267 Biological process Cell-cell signaling TAS 481597
GO:0005515 Molecular function Protein binding IPI 11222739
Protein Information
Protein Name
Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide, choriogonadotropin alpha chain , GPHa , HCG , alpha polypeptide" , glycoprotein hormones alpha chain , CG-alpha , Chorionic gonadotrophin subunit alpha , chorionic gonadotropin, alpha polypeptide , LSH-alpha , FSH-alpha , "chorionic gonadotropin , lutropin alpha chain , "glycoprotein hormones alpha chain" , follicle-stimulating hormone alpha subunit , "lutropin alpha chain" , thyroid-stimulating hormone alpha chain , LHA , Thyrotropin alpha chain , chorionic gonadotrophin subunit alpha , follitropin alpha chain , FSHA , Thyroid-stimulating hormone alpha chain , Lutropin alpha chain , TSHA , Follicle-stimulating hormone alpha chain , luteinizing hormone alpha chain , TSH-alpha , GPHA1 , "thyroid-stimulating hormone alpha chain" , CG-ALPHA , "follicle-stimulating hormone alpha subunit" , follicle-stimulating hormone alpha chain , Follitropin alpha chain , Anterior pituitary glycoprotein hormones common subunit alpha , anterior pituitary glycoprotein hormones common subunit alpha , Luteinizing hormone alpha chain , "luteinizing hormone alpha chain" , thyrotropin alpha chain , Choriogonadotropin alpha chain
Pfam Accession Pfam ID
PF00236 Hormone_6 Glycoprotein hormone

Associated Diseases

Diseases References
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) 23697264, 25220536, 24677210, 22344736, 19948072, 19595057, 19107500, 19080630, 18832802, 18334581, 18173145, 17953969, 17488794, 17276431, 15705917, 15498184, 12095507, 11293919, 10588520, 10561001, 9150702, 8034073, 3311782, 24040456, 22564702, 22575725, 23748472, 21853931, 22527903, 21827375, 20840271, 20130411, 20045799, 19549442, 18680073, 17141766, 16785159, 16600233, 16316841, 15853827, 15472214, 14671186, 12615821, 11836319, 22419715, 22107332, 14737959, 12230452, 9024269, 8941059, 8915661, 8966389, 8845652, 8028500, 1835937, 1940062, 23685425, 22621829, 20504873, 21270326, 19240152, 17445806

Clinical evidence for predominance of delta-5 steroid production in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Rosencrantz Marcus A, Coffler Mickey S, Haggan Annette, Duke Kimberly B, Donohue Michael C, Shayya Rana F, Su H Irene, Chang R Jeffrey
Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Apr;96(4):1106-13. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-2200. Epub
Supporting Literature:
PubMed ID Associated gene/s Associated condition Genetic Mutation Diagnostic Criteria Association with PCOS Ethnicity Conclusion
NIH criteria 
After phenotyping a cohort of 60 women, steroid and inhibin-B responses to gonadotropins were evaluated in representative typical (n = 7) and atypical (n = 5) PCOS and healthy controls (n = 8) 
Typical PCOS is characterized by intrinsic ovarian hypersensitivity to hCG to which excessive paracrine FSH signaling via inhibin-B may contribute. 
103 subjects undergoing COH protocols (n=66), divided on the basis of the pair's fertility disorder causes (female FD, n=29; male FD, n=37), and age matched healthy women (n=37) 
The GnRH antagonist/hCG protocol promotes CD3+/CD8+ and KIR2DL4+ NK cell levels, more abundant in subjects with lower implantation rates, and thus decreases the embryotransfer success in otherwise fertile women 
Rotterdam criteria 
82 patients with PCOS underwent IVM cycles 
While a significant improvement in the nuclear maturation rate of immature oocytes was observed in hCG-primed IVM cycles withPCOS patients, the use of hCG prior to oocyte retrieval did not improve the subsequent embryo developmental competence. The high rate of pregnancy loss in IVM cycles should receive more attention 
The data from the meta-analyses suggests that the effect on clinical outcome of gonadotrophin priming of IVM still needs to be studied. In order to improve the IVM programs, it is essential to define not only the clinical aspects but also the laboratory and embryological aspects 
PCOS subjects exhibited clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and were either oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic. 
Women with PCOS (age, 18-37 yr; n = 10) and normal ovulatory controls (age, 18-37 yr; n = 11) were recruited 
In PCOS women, maximal A and T responses to hCG relative to those of 17-OHP are consistent with ovarian androgen overproduction via the delta-5 pathway. 


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