Gene Information
Gene Symbol
Entrez Gene ID
Gene Name
Chromosomal Location
The protein encoded by this gene is actually a preproprotein that is cleaved into four distinct mature peptides. One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glucagon is a ligand for a specific G-protein linked receptor whose signalling pathway controls cell proliferation. Two of the other peptides are secreted from gut endocrine cells and promote nutrient absorption through distinct mechanisms. Finally, the fourth peptide is similar to glicentin, an active enteroglucagon. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)
GeneCards ID
RefSeq mRNA

Gene Ontology (GO)

GO ID Ontology Definition Evidence Reference
GO:0007165 Biological process Signal transduction TAS 7929237
GO:0007186 Biological process G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 9990065
GO:0007631 Biological process Feeding behavior TAS 8538742
GO:0008283 Biological process Cell proliferation TAS 10861272
GO:0005102 Molecular function Receptor binding TAS 9990065
Protein Information
Protein Name
Glucagon-like peptide 2
Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes| GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis| GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis, enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability| Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake. Inhibits gastric emptying in humans. Suppression of gastric emptying may lead to increased gastric distension, which may contribute to satiety by causing a sensation of fullness| Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity. May play an important role in intestinal mucosal growth in the early period of life
Refseq Proteins
IPR015550, IPR000532
Pfam Accession Pfam ID
PF00123 Hormone_2 Peptide hormone

Associated Diseases

Diseases References
Diabetes mellitus type 2 18511472

Incretin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Vrbikova Jana, Hill Martin, Bendlova Bela, Grimmichova Tereza, Dvorakova Katerina, Vondra Karel, Pacini Giovanni
Institute of Endocrinology, Narodni 8, Prague 111694, Czech Republic. jvrbikova@endo.cz
Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Aug;159(2):121-7. doi: 10.1530/EJE-08-0097. Epub 2008 May
Supporting Literature:
PubMed ID Associated gene/s Associated condition Genetic Mutation Diagnostic Criteria Association with PCOS Ethnicity Conclusion
Type 2 diabetes mellitus 

Unreviewed Literature:

PubMed / PMC ID
Title Type of study
Gastrointestinal hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an observational study. 
Clinical study 
26010091, PMC4444207
Liraglutide improves hypertension and metabolic perturbation in a rat model of polycystic ovarian syndrome. 
Animal study 
Genetic variability in GLP-1 receptor is associated with inter-individual differences in weight lowering potential of liraglutide in obese women with PCOS: a pilot study. 
Clinical study 
Liraglutide: an injectable option for the management of obesity. 
Effect of treatment 
A 12-week treatment with the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide leads to significant weight loss in a subset of obese women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome. 
Effect of treatment 


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