Gene Information
Gene Symbol
Entrez Gene ID
Gene Name
High mobility group box 2
Chromosomal Location
This gene encodes a member of the non-histone chromosomal high mobility group protein family. The proteins of this family are chromatin-associated and ubiquitously distributed in the nucleus of higher eukaryotic cells. In vitro studies have demonstrated that this protein is able to efficiently bend DNA and form DNA circles. These studies suggest a role in facilitating cooperative interactions between cis-acting proteins by promoting DNA flexibility. This protein was also reported to be involved in the final ligation step in DNA end-joining processes of DNA double-strand breaks repair and V(D)J recombination. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

Gene Ontology (GO)

GO ID Ontology Function Evidence Reference
GO:0001938 Biological process Positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA 19811285
GO:0006310 Biological process DNA recombination IBA 21873635
GO:0006325 Biological process Chromatin organization NAS 11909973
GO:0006334 Biological process Nucleosome assembly NAS 11909973
GO:0006338 Biological process Chromatin remodeling IBA 21873635
Protein Information
Protein Name
High mobility group protein B2, HMG-2, high mobility group protein 2, high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein 2
Multifunctional protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. May act in a redox sensitive manner. In the nucleus is an abundant chromatin-associated non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and V(D)J recombination and probably other processes. Binds DNA with a preference to non-canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA. Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or bringing distant regulatory sequences into close proximity (PubMed:7797075, PubMed:11909973, PubMed:19522541, PubMed:18413230, PubMed:19965638, PubMed:20123072). Involved in V(D)J recombination by acting as a cofactor of the RAG complex: acts by stimulating cleavage and RAG protein binding at the 23 bp spacer of conserved recombination signal sequences (RSS) (By similarity). Proposed to be involved in the innate immune response to nucleic acids by acting as a promiscuous immunogenic DNA/RNA sensor which cooperates with subsequent discriminative sensing by specific pattern recognition receptors (By similarity). In the extracellular compartment acts as a chemokine. Promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells implicating AGER/RAGE (PubMed:19811285). Has antimicrobial activity in gastrointestinal epithelial tissues (PubMed:23877675). Involved in inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus coupled with proinflammatory activity (By similarity). Involved in modulation of neurogenesis probably by regulation of neural stem proliferation (By similarity). Involved in articular cartilage surface maintenance implicating LEF1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway (By similarity).
Pfam Accession Pfam ID
PF00505 HMG_box
PF09011 HMG_box_2


Apoptosis induced DNA fragmentation

ENSP00000276198 P28335 P28335
    View interactions

Associated Diseases

Disease groupDisease NameReferences
Endocrine System Diseases
Liver Cancer
Lung Cancer
Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases

PDGFRA, HSD17B4 and HMGB2 are potential therapeutic targets in polycystic ovarian syndrome and breast cancer.

Xu Huiyu, Han Yong, Lou Jiaying, Zhang Hongxian, Zhao Yue, Gyorffy Balazs, Li Rong
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, P.R. China.| Department of Pathology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China.| Department of Clinical Laboratory, Renmin Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China.| Department of Urology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, P.R. China.| Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, P.R. China.| Momentum Cancer Biomarker Research Group, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.| Second Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.| Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, P.R. China.
Oncotarget. 2017 May 13;8(41):69520-69526. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.17846.

| © 2019, Biomedical Informatics Centre, NIRRH |
National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel, Mumbai-400 012
Tel: 91-22-24192104, Fax No: 91-22-24139412