Gene Information
Gene Symbol
ERK, ERK-2, ERK2, ERT1, MAPK2, P42MAPK, PRKM1, PRKM2, p38, p40, p41, p41mapk, p42-MAPK
Entrez Gene ID
Gene Name
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
Chromosomal Location
This gene encodes a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of this kinase requires its phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Upon activation, this kinase translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cells, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. One study also suggests that this protein acts as a transcriptional repressor independent of its kinase activity. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein, but differing in the UTRs, have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
RefSeq DNA
RefSeq mRNA

Gene Ontology (GO)

GO ID Ontology Function Evidence Reference
GO:0006468 Biological process Protein phosphorylation IDA 23184662
GO:0006468 Biological process Protein phosphorylation TAS 11404397
GO:0006935 Biological process Chemotaxis TAS 10706854
GO:0007165 Biological process Signal transduction TAS 1540184
GO:0007268 Biological process Chemical synaptic transmission TAS 10051431
Protein Information
Protein Name
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, MAP kinase 1, MAP kinase 2, MAP kinase isoform p42, MAPK 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, mitogen-activated protein kinase 2, protein tyrosine kinase ERK2
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK cascade. They participate also in a signaling cascade initiated by activated KIT and KITLG/SCF. Depending on the cellular context, the MAPK/ERK cascade mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation through the regulation of transcription, translation, cytoskeletal rearrangements. The MAPK/ERK cascade plays also a role in initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors. About 160 substrates have already been discovered for ERKs. Many of these substrates are localized in the nucleus, and seem to participate in the regulation of transcription upon stimulation. However, other substrates are found in the cytosol as well as in other cellular organelles, and those are responsible for processes such as translation, mitosis and apoptosis. Moreover, the MAPK/ERK cascade is also involved in the regulation of the endosomal dynamics, including lysosome processing and endosome cycling through the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC); as well as in the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis. The substrates include transcription factors (such as ATF2, BCL6, ELK1, ERF, FOS, HSF4 or SPZ1), cytoskeletal elements (such as CANX, CTTN, GJA1, MAP2, MAPT, PXN, SORBS3 or STMN1), regulators of apoptosis (such as BAD, BTG2, CASP9, DAPK1, IER3, MCL1 or PPARG), regulators of translation (such as EIF4EBP1) and a variety of other signaling-related molecules (like ARHGEF2, DCC, FRS2 or GRB10). Protein kinases (such as RAF1, RPS6KA1/RSK1, RPS6KA3/RSK2, RPS6KA2/RSK3, RPS6KA6/RSK4, SYK, MKNK1/MNK1, MKNK2/MNK2, RPS6KA5/MSK1, RPS6KA4/MSK2, MAPKAPK3 or MAPKAPK5) and phosphatases (such as DUSP1, DUSP4, DUSP6 or DUSP16) are other substrates which enable the propagation the MAPK/ERK signal to additional cytosolic and nuclear targets, thereby extending the specificity of the cascade. Mediates phosphorylation of TPR in respons to EGF stimulation. May play a role in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Phosphorylates PML and promotes its interaction with PIN1, leading to PML degradation. Phosphorylates CDK2AP2 (By similarity). .; Acts as a transcriptional repressor. Binds to a [GC]AAA[GC] consensus sequence. Repress the expression of interferon gamma-induced genes. Seems to bind to the promoter of CCL5, DMP1, IFIH1, IFITM1, IRF7, IRF9, LAMP3, OAS1, OAS2, OAS3 and STAT1. Transcriptional activity is independent of kinase activity.
Refseq Proteins
Pfam Accession Pfam ID
PF00069 Pkinase

EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance
Endocrine resistance
Platinum drug resistance
MAPK signaling pathway
ErbB signaling pathway
Ras signaling pathway
Rap1 signaling pathway
cGMP-PKG signaling pathway
cAMP signaling pathway
Chemokine signaling pathway
HIF-1 signaling pathway
FoxO signaling pathway
Sphingolipid signaling pathway
Phospholipase D signaling pathway
Oocyte meiosis
Autophagy - animal
mTOR signaling pathway
PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
Cellular senescence
Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes
Vascular smooth muscle contraction
TGF-beta signaling pathway
Axon guidance
VEGF signaling pathway
Apelin signaling pathway
Osteoclast differentiation
Focal adhesion
Adherens junction
Gap junction
Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells
Platelet activation
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
NOD-like receptor signaling pathway
C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway
Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
IL-17 signaling pathway
Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation
Th17 cell differentiation
T cell receptor signaling pathway
B cell receptor signaling pathway
Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway
Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis
TNF signaling pathway
Circadian entrainment
Long-term potentiation
Neurotrophin signaling pathway
Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling
Glutamatergic synapse
Cholinergic synapse
Serotonergic synapse
Long-term depression
Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
Insulin signaling pathway
GnRH signaling pathway
Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation
Estrogen signaling pathway
Prolactin signaling pathway
Thyroid hormone signaling pathway
Oxytocin signaling pathway
Relaxin signaling pathway
Parathyroid hormone synthesis, secretion and action
Type II diabetes mellitus
AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications
Cushing syndrome
Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption
Alzheimer disease
Prion diseases
Salmonella infection
Yersinia infection
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis B
Human cytomegalovirus infection
Influenza A
Human papillomavirus infection
Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 infection
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection
Pathways in cancer
Viral carcinogenesis
Proteoglycans in cancer
MicroRNAs in cancer
Colorectal cancer
Renal cell carcinoma
Pancreatic cancer
Endometrial cancer
Prostate cancer
Thyroid cancer
Bladder cancer
Chronic myeloid leukemia
Acute myeloid leukemia
Non-small cell lung cancer
Breast cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Gastric cancer
Central carbon metabolism in cancer
Choline metabolism in cancer
PD-L1 expression and PD-1 checkpoint pathway in cancer


phospho-PLA2 pathway
RAF-independent MAPK1/3 activation
MAPK1 (ERK2) activation
Spry regulation of FGF signaling
Golgi Cisternae Pericentriolar Stack Reorganization
Frs2-mediated activation
ERK/MAPK targets
ERKs are inactivated
Regulation of actin dynamics for phagocytic cup formation
Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)
Oncogene Induced Senescence
FCERI mediated MAPK activation
Regulation of HSF1-mediated heat shock response
NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth
Recycling pathway of L1
Signal transduction by L1
Activation of the AP-1 family of transcription factors
Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs)
Negative regulation of FGFR1 signaling
Negative regulation of FGFR2 signaling
Negative regulation of FGFR3 signaling
Negative regulation of FGFR4 signaling
RHO GTPases Activate WASPs and WAVEs
RHO GTPases Activate NADPH Oxidases
RAF/MAP kinase cascade
MAP2K and MAPK activation
Negative feedback regulation of MAPK pathway
Negative regulation of MAPK pathway
Neutrophil degranulation
Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutants
Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutants
Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusions
Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF
PI5P, PP2A and IER3 Regulate PI3K/AKT Signaling
Signal attenuation
Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK
ESR-mediated signaling
Regulation of PTEN gene transcription
Regulation of the apoptosome activity
Estrogen-stimulated signaling through PRKCZ
Estrogen-dependent nuclear events downstream of ESR-membrane signaling
Suppression of apoptosis
Signaling downstream of RAS mutants
FCGR3A-mediated phagocytosis
Growth hormone receptor signaling

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Associated Diseases

Disease groupDisease NameReferences
Cardiovascular Diseases
Myocardial Diseases
Digestive System Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
PubMed ID Associated gene/s Associated condition Genetic Mutation Diagnostic Criteria Association with PCOS Ethnicity Conclusion
(IRS)-1 serine 
Women with PCOS (n= 20) had six or fewer menses per year and elevated total testosterone and/or nonsex hormonebinding globulinbound testosterone levels 
20 PCOS womens and 15 control 
ERK1/2 activation may play a role in feedback of insulin signaling and contribute to resistance to insulin's metabolic actions in PCOS. 
52 patients as PCOS and 32 non-PCOS  
Endometrium in PCOS group was higher and expression of p-ERK1/2 was significantly increased in group of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma compare to control 
phosphorylation of ERK1/2  
Rotterdam criteria 
9 PCOS womes and 7 controls 
The altered response of ERK to insulin in PCOS was the most obvious signalling defect associated with insulin resistance in muscle from these patients. 

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