Gene Information
Gene Symbol
HP10433, TIG2
Entrez Gene ID
Gene Name
Retinoic acid receptor responder 2
Chromosomal Location
This gene encodes a secreted chemotactic protein that initiates chemotaxis via the ChemR23 G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane domain ligand. Expression of this gene is upregulated by the synthetic retinoid tazarotene and occurs in a wide variety of tissues. The active protein has several roles, including that as an adipokine and as an antimicrobial protein with activity against bacteria and fungi. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

Gene Ontology (GO)

GO ID Ontology Function Evidence Reference
GO:0001523 Biological process Retinoid metabolic process IDA 9204961
GO:0001934 Biological process Positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA 17635925
GO:0008286 Biological process Insulin receptor signaling pathway IDA 18242188
GO:0010759 Biological process Positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis IMP 19443732
GO:0019732 Biological process Antifungal humoral response IMP 23527010
Protein Information
Protein Name
Retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2, RAR-responsive protein TIG2, chemerin, retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2, tazarotene-induced gene 2 protein
Adipocyte-secreted protein (adipokine) that regulates adipogenesis, metabolism and inflammation through activation of the chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Its other ligands include G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1) and chemokine receptor-like 2 (CCRL2). Positively regulates adipocyte differentiation, modulates the expression of adipocyte genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and might play a role in angiogenesis, a process essential for the expansion of white adipose tissue. Also acts as a proinflammatory adipokine, causing an increase in secretion of proinflammatory and prodiabetic adipokines, which further impair adipose tissue metabolic function and have negative systemic effects including impaired insulin sensitivity, altered glucose and lipid metabolism, and a decrease in vascular function in other tissues. Can have both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties depending on the modality of enzymatic cleavage by different classes of proteases. Acts as a chemotactic factor for leukocyte populations expressing CMKLR1, particularly immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells, but also immature myeloid DCs, macrophages and natural killer cells. Exerts an anti-inflammatory role by preventing TNF/TNFA-induced VCAM1 expression and monocytes adhesion in vascular endothelial cells. The effect is mediated via inhibiting activation of NF-kappa-B and CRK/p38 through stimulation of AKT1/NOS3 signaling and nitric oxide production. Its dual role in inflammation and metabolism might provide a link between chronic inflammation and obesity, as well as obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exhibits an antimicrobial function in the skin.


Platelet degranulation

ENSP00000162749 P19438 P19438
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Associated Diseases

Disease groupDisease NameReferences
Endocrine System Diseases
Psychiatric/Brain disorders
Mental Depression
Bipolar Disorder
PubMed ID Associated gene/s Associated condition Genetic Mutation Diagnostic Criteria Association with PCOS Ethnicity Conclusion
PCOS, obesity, insulin resistance (IR), glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases 
Rotterdam inclusion/exclusion criteria 
148 PCOS women and 88 healthy women 
Patients with PCOS showed increased serum chemerin concentrations as compared to healthy women. Individuals with higher chemerin tended to have higher risk for ovarian volume excess in patients with PCOS, regardless of adiposity 
PCOS, hyperandrogenism (HA), menstrual irregularity, obesity, infertility, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Rotterdam criteria 
198 PCOS women 
Serum chemerin level is associated with the occurrence of abortion in patients with PCOS. Thus, serum chemerin may serve as a biomarker to identify pregnant women with PCOS who are at particular risk for later abortion, and who may benefit from prevention strategies. 
PCOS, hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and insulin resistance 
Rotterdam criteria 
118 PCOS women and 114 control women 
Serum chemerin levels increased in PCOS women, especially in obese PCOS. HOMA-IR, TC, and leptin are determinants of chemerin levels. Our results suggest that chemerin involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS and metabolicrelated comorbidities, the exact mechanism needs to be further studied. 
PCOS, abdominal adiposity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 
Rotterdam criteria 
40 PCOS women,30 control women 
Circulating chemerin was increased in overweight compared with normal weight PCOS patients. The most predictive variables for circulating chemerin in PCOS patients were BMI, FAI and age 
PCOS, insulin resistance (IR), Type 2 Diabetes 
Rotterdam criteria 
81 lean and obese women with PCOS, 61 lean and obese controls  
Fat mass seems to be the main determinant factor of increased chemerin and decreased omentin in women with PCOS 

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